Eggplant mosaic: photos, symptoms, treatment and other diseases of nightshade
Infections, as well as pathogenic microorganisms, very often lead to the destruction of crops. The most dangerous of these is the eggplant mosaic. This viral disease primarily affects the leaves of the plant. A spot of bright green color appears on them in the form of original patterns. Over time, these spots increase in size. As a result, tissue necrosis is formed at this place. If the mosaic virus infects fruits, they become covered with yellow spots. All this leads to the complete death of agriculture..
Eggplant mosaic: photo of the disease and measures to combat it
This virus multiplies and lives in plant waste. The infection is often found on garden tools. Sometimes colonies of pathogenic microorganisms live in the soil. Plant infection occurs at the time of transplanting or picking.
Also, insect pests can serve as carriers of a viral disease:
This is how the eggplant mosaic appears. A photo of the symptoms of this infection will help the gardener quickly identify it. It is almost impossible to destroy the virus. It can live in soil, plants and equipment for several years..
Therefore, virologists recommend to farmers:
- completely destroy infected specimens;
- adhere to the rules of crop rotation;
- disinfect seed before planting;
- disinfect all working tools;
- in the fall, remove all plant residues from the garden, burning them.
Before planting, some gardeners treat the seedlings with hydrochloric acid (20%). After 30 minutes, it is washed under running water. Nevertheless, before that, you need to try to apply the concentrate to a small amount of planting material..
To protect your planting from viral diseases, you need to regularly carry out preventive measures. This is done before the eggplant spots appear. To do this, take skim milk, in which laundry soap is dissolved. Then the resulting composition is sprayed on the plants. The procedure is carried out every 7-8 days 2-3 times.
Fungal diseases of eggplant
Due to a lack of moisture or nutrients, agriculture becomes vulnerable to various types of fungal organisms. As a result, dry spots appear on the leaves of the eggplant..
Such symptoms may indicate an infection of the agricultural sector with several common diseases:
- Late blight. Spots with a light green border have a brownish tinge. With high humidity, sudden temperature changes or thickened planting, a white bloom appears on the leaves of the eggplant, but only on the back side.
- Alternaria or gray rot. Dark brown spots of regular shape appear on the foliage, and on the fruits – “wet” depressed areas.
- Fusarium or “toxicosis” culture. When fungal spores enter plants, they block sap flow in the vessels. The leaves do not receive nutrients and they begin to turn yellow, curl, and then dry out..
Eggplants become more resistant to damage by pathogenic spores when applying complex mineral fertilizers to the soil. In addition, the planting is often treated with wood ash..
The most effective way to combat fungal diseases is to treat bushes with fungicides.
For this, farmers often use several drugs:
As an alternative, Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate solution is used. The given photos of eggplant diseases and their treatment will help the gardener win this difficult confrontation with an invisible enemy.
Phomopsis on eggplant – slow death of fruits
Hot weather and high humidity leads to the development of fungal bacteria such as phomopsis. This is exactly what eggplants are most often sick with. Pathogenic microorganisms develop during crop growth, as well as during transportation or storage of crops. Brown depressions appear on the surface of the fruit.
As a prophylactic agent for phomopsis, the following are used:
- “Spartacus”. For 5 liters of liquid, 20 g of the composition is added.
- Funzadol. In 10 l of water, 10 g of the drug is diluted.
- Derolaz. Add 5 to 7 ml of concentrate to a bucket of water.
If the eggplant is dark inside, it means that the disease has affected the entire fruit. Such an instance must be completely removed from the garden and burned. To protect the plant from phomopsis, it is necessary to choose early agricultural varieties that are resistant to these pathogenic spores. In addition, farmers recommend treating seeds with disinfectants before planting..
The black dots inside the eggplant are immature seeds, but not always. Sometimes, due to high humidity, mold forms inside the fruit. Therefore, these vegetables should not be consumed..
Phytoplasmosis – no chance of healing
The vectors of this viral disease are leafhoppers. By its external manifestations, phytoplasmosis resembles the defeat of plants by a spider mite..
The main symptoms of this disease are:
- small leaves with a lilac tint;
- deformed flowers with colorless petals;
- woody stem;
- small, irregular fruit.
This disease cannot be treated. Therefore, the best way to deal with it is to prevent its occurrence. To do this, the site is regularly treated with insecticides to protect the planting from insect pests..
Simple preparations help farmers in this matter:
The beds must be weeded out, removing weeds from them. It is the wild-growing grass that is an excellent breeding ground for insects, which means bacteria and viruses..
In addition, it is necessary to observe the agricultural technique of planting representatives of the nightshade family. They should not be planted in excessively moist soil or with a close occurrence of groundwater..
In addition, the following are contraindicated for eggplant:
- excess nitrogen-containing fertilizers;
- shady areas;
- increased acidity of the soil substrate;
- sharp temperature fluctuations;
- thickened plantings.
If you always take these factors into account, then the eggplant mosaic will become a disease of the past. At the same time, prevention is the best treatment..