The most common diseases of fruit trees and methods for their elimination
Every gardener tries to work hard to reward a bountiful harvest. However, various diseases of fruit trees deprive him of this joy. Often, vivid symptoms appear at the time of fruit ripening, when it is no longer possible to save them. Therefore, it is very important to learn how to determine the onset of a fungal invasion and apply effective treatment. After all, pathogenic pathogens are invisible to the human eye and wonderfully camouflaged. But when their numbers increase, there is a real threat to the harvest..
Varieties of diseases
To correctly diagnose a “weak” culture and start treatment, you need to know the pathogen “by sight”. There are 5 main types of fruit tree diseases that are caused by pathogenic microbes.
Infection occurs through harmful cultural spores. Organisms are not able to independently exist in the environment. Therefore, they parasitize on fruit trees. Spores enter the plant through damage that occurs on the bark or wood. Microorganisms live entirely on the donor. As a result, the culture loses its vitality and eventually dies..
Single-celled organisms do not produce chlorophyll. Therefore, they have to look for it in the external environment. As a rule, they “settle” in fruit trees.
A number of factors open the path to culture infection:
- raw cuts of branches;
- infected inventory;
- diseased cuttings;
- damaged bark.
The risk group includes fruit crops with weak immunity. It is caused by micronutrient deficiencies, improper care and insect pests. Climatic conditions are often the cause of “weakness”.
Invisible acellular organisms are the main cause of infectious diseases. They are carried by various types of insects that suck the juice from the foliage or fruits of the culture..
Lead to defeat:
- untreated wounds on the trunk and branches;
- sections of healthy tissue;
- insect saliva.
When the virus enters “fertile soil”, it immediately begins to multiply. Invisible colonies of acellular organisms actively feed on valuable plant components. As a result, it stops developing. In early spring, it has much fewer flower buds. Over time, they completely disappear, which leads to loss and termination of fruiting..
The disease develops as a result of incorrect cell division. Ugly growths on tree branches that have cracked bark are visible evidence of infection. Often a large amount of resin is released from them..
Most often, cancer affects:
- root system.
The prerequisite for the disease is sudden temperature changes, bacterial and fungal infections. Unfortunately, the infected cells remain in the plant’s genetic system. Therefore, it cannot be used for grafting cuttings..
Cancer-affected fruit crops are losing yields.
Foci of infection appear in various ways. They are usually stimulated:
- mechanical damage;
- glaciation of the trunk and branches;
- extremely low winter temperature.
Traces of necrosis appear on the stem cover, bast and cambium of the culture. Ignoring the problem causes a loss of immunity, as a result, the plant slowly dies.
Diseases of fruit trees: names, symptoms, methods of treatment
Many people are familiar with the expression: “Every self-respecting doctor should write a prescription.” But before you can take on such responsibility, you need to receive extensive training. Likewise, recognizing the symptoms of fruit tree disease will help the grower apply quality treatment. Consider the most common infections.
The causative agents of the disease are pathogenic fungi. Most often, they affect apple and pear trees. Scab symptoms first appear on the leaf blades. Yellowish oily spots form on them, which gradually turn into a greenish-brown bloom. This indicates the presence of a large number of actively developing fungi..
On the affected apple tree foliage, signs of scab can be seen on the front side. And for a pear, they are on the back of the plate. A similar defect is formed on fruits. It is represented by round dark spots with a barely noticeable light frame. Over time, they become covered with an olive-colored bloom. As a result, the fruits take on an ugly appearance and stop developing..
The infection affects the young branches of the pear. At first blisters appear on them. Then they crack and reveal a darkish coating. The culture slows down growth and significantly decreases its fruiting.
A number of medications are used to treat diseased fruit trees.:
- Bordeaux mixture (spraying is carried out in early spring before the buds bloom);
- “Horus” (fungicide that is not washed off by precipitation);
- “Fitosporin-M” (biological preparation containing bacteria).
For the prevention of scab, folk remedies are used. Trees are treated with salt, mustard or manganese solution. If desired, make a tincture of horsetail.
When spraying plants, it is advisable to protect the eyes, skin and respiratory tract from the ingress of drugs.
The disease occurs in the process of damage to the culture by pathogenic bacteria. Symptoms appear on shoots, flowers, and fruits. From the outside, they seem burnt. The tops of the trees are curved downward. The leaf plates suddenly turn black. On young shoots, the bark swells and a yellowish liquid with a pungent aroma is released. Unripe fruits actively rot.
Simple preventive measures are reliable protection of fruit trees from bacteriosis. They include:
- whitewashing of trunks with lime;
- sanitary pruning;
- timely watering and feeding.
If 40% of the plant’s bark is already affected, simple procedures are followed. First, sore spots are thoroughly cleaned to a healthy surface. Then it is disinfected with copper sulfate and wrapped with a cloth moistened with the same liquid. After 14 days, the bandage is removed to inspect the wound. If the bacteriosis has not spread further, the site is covered with garden pitch or clay mixed with mullein.
If necessary, the procedure is repeated several times until the problem is completely eliminated..
When an ailment occurs, leaf plates, fruits and bark of the main skeletal branches are affected. Small dents form on it. As a result, the surface of the trunk begins to fade quickly. At first, it takes on a brownish or purple hue. Over time, it turns into a deep black color, reminiscent of charred wood. Such a bark cracks in different directions and becomes covered with many bumps. Parts of the surface fall out, exposing the inner layer of wood.
The presence of black cancer – a disease of trees of fungal origin, is determined by the foliage and fruits. Purple dots are formed on the top of the plate. They gradually increase, turning into round convex spots. Similar defects are formed on fruits that completely destroy them..
Old cultures with weakened immunity are at risk of black cancer.
Eliminate the problem only at an early stage of development. To do this, remove the affected areas with a chisel. Then they are treated with any antiseptic. For example, a solution of potassium permanganate, copper sulfate, or an anticancer putty. Also, the wood is covered with oil paint or drying oil. If time is lost, suitable fungicides are used: “HOM”, “Fitosporin”, “Abiga-Peak”.
Large colonies of pathogenic microorganisms contribute to the appearance of infectious yellow spots on the bark of trees. With the development of the disease, they acquire a reddish tint. If nothing is done, the surface of the barrel loses its elasticity and its protective properties. As a result, the culture becomes vulnerable to mechanical and bacterial stress..
Eliminate the problem by abundantly processing the crown of the plant in early spring until the buds swell. The procedure is carried out at a temperature of + 15 ° C. Use the HOM fungicide. Re-spray the culture just before flowering.
Unforgiven horticultural guests
Lichens or fungi often appear on the surface of the trunk. Unfortunately, they weaken the plant’s immunity and affect the quality of the fruit. These “settlers” use culture as a reliable support. However, they quickly occupy a vast territory..
The reasons for the appearance of “unexpected guests” are factors:
- high humidity;
- frostbitten branches;
- lack of sanitary pruning;
- weak root system.
Consider ways to eliminate green plaque on trees. What’s the first thing to do? Do not wait for lichens to “conquer” the entire territory. As soon as signs of mold appear, they immediately get down to business. Use hard scrapers or a garden knife to remove visible formations. In the spring, they do sanitary pruning and treatment of branches with fungicides. Most often they use “Skor” or “Fitosporin”. Lime whitewashing and spraying with a solution of copper sulfate will not interfere.
Chemicals are used strictly according to the dosage indicated on the package. Otherwise, the solution will harm the plant..
Sometimes gardeners notice mushrooms on the trees. How to deal with them without harming the culture?
There are several preventive measures:
- regular inspection of the garden;
- pruning damaged branches;
- whitewashing the trunk;
- timely treatment of wounds.
If the mushrooms do appear, then the first step is to carefully remove them. Then the cut is treated with a disinfectant. Do not let things take their course. Indeed, various types of polypores, which are considered parasites, “settle” on fruit trees.
We have covered the most common fruit tree diseases that affect our gardens. They are identified according to various criteria. For treatment, traditional methods and chemicals are used. May our gardens always bring bountiful harvests.