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Parakeratosis in pigs from the point of view of specialists

parakeratosis in pigs Skin disease caused by zinc deficiency leads to infertility in adults or high intrauterine mortality. Parakeratosis in pigs most often occurs with metabolic disorders. Often this is a consequence of feeding animals only with compound feed (especially dry), corn or vegetable proteins. The disease is registered in the Baltic States, Belarus, Ukraine, Estonia, Altai, the Volga region and in the North-West regions of Russia.

Diagnosing parakeratosis in pigs

diagnosis of parakeratosis in pigs The symptomatology of the disease in each individual case manifests itself in different ways. Usually mammals are characterized by a significant lag in growth and development. In addition, appetite decreases sharply and there is a strong thirst. Exhaustion is accompanied by a deterioration in general condition, as well as overexcitation. Partial hair loss beginssuspected parakeratosis

The first signs of zinc deficiency in piglets are the appearance of redness in the area:

  • head (nose, ears, eyes, neck);
  • perineum;
  • back;
  • peritoneum;
  • outer surface of the limbs.

disease progressionAs the disease progresses, the red rash takes on a black-brown tint. Such areas of the skin become rough and thickened. Over time, the upper epidermis gradually detaches. Cracks are often formed under this scaly crust. When all sorts of infections get into them, symptoms of pyoderma can develop. Although parakeratosis in animals is considered a very dangerous disease, it is still worth remembering that an excess of zinc leads to metabolic disorders and poisoning (diarrhea, vomiting, colic) of individuals.

The high content of calcium in the diet of animals is a favorable soil for the development of zinc deficiency..

The main thing is to make the correct diagnosis.

inspection of pigletsOften, weaned pigs and gilts, less often young animals and adults, suffer from this disease. The main causative agent of skin infection, according to scientists, is the common staphylococcus aureus. Entire colonies of bacteria live on the skin of all animals. However, microorganisms do not manifest themselves in any way and do not cause harm until favorable conditions come for them..

Microbes begin their “dirty work” when:

  • the appearance of burns (chemical or solar);
  • damage to the skin;
  • the formation of a film of dirt, fat and feces, under which pathogens actively multiply;
  • high indoor humidity.

biochemical analysisDue to this nature of the disease, only specialists are able to correctly diagnose the disease..

Veterinarians take into account not only the external signs of its manifestation, for example, the piglet is covered with scabs, but also take into account:

  • blood test results (presence of protein, zinc and vitamin A);
  • chemical indicators of studies of food, water and soil;
  • all clinical signs of parakeratosis;
  • pathological changes (eg, liver or gastrointestinal tract).

At the same time, doctors exclude the presence of other skin diseases associated with dermatitis. These may include scabies, eczema, or other infectious diseases of the epidermis. At the same time, the reason for the appearance of parakeratosis in pigs is considered to be a lack of vitamin A, which leads to interruptions in the absorption of a complex of necessary substances into the blood..

Decoding a blood test. Normal indicators of zinc content in the blood serum of an animal are 100% mcg or more. Mineral deficiency is diagnosed at a level below 50% μg (or 7.7 μmol / l).

Various types of treatment

piglet treatmentAn easy way to treat parakeratosis is to routinely supplement the diet with zinc sulfate. The composition is added to the feed at the rate of 100-120 mg per kilogram of dry mix. In other cases, patients are given 0.8-1.2 g of the drug daily by mouth. With this therapy, recovery occurs after 15-18 days. The introduction of intramuscular injections of a solution of zinc sulfate (5%) together with vitamin A will help to obtain the fastest possible therapeutic effect.. vaccine dosageThe dosage of the first agent is 10 mg / kg of body weight, and the second is in accordance with the instructions. As a result of this extra treatment, after 4-5 days, the skin is cleansed and artiodactyls have appetite..

Some experts advise adding zinc salts to drinking water at a dosage of 2 g / L. Moreover, for every 2 kg of live weight, there is only up to 0.5 ml of an aqueous suspension.

The answer to the question of how to treat scabs in piglets is the usual use of zinc sulfate solution. In this case, the dosage of the drug will be 0.5 ml per 1-2 kg of live weight of an individual. The prepared concentrate is sprayed on the mash.

Along with this, the following is added to the pig diet:

  • yeast;
  • bran;
  • roots;
  • germ / seedlings of cereal grains;
  • colostrum;
  • beans / peas.

good nutritionAs a result of such therapy, all signs of zinc deficiency disappear. Moreover, the sexual activity of mammals increases, as well as their fertility increases. Another important point in the treatment of parakeratosis is the bacterial nature of the disease. Usually, such ailments are dealt with with antibiotics..

However, medications will only be effective if:

  • treatment was carried out at an early stage;
  • the drug is applicable against the fight against a specific strain of bacteria;
  • the dosage (concentration) is correctly calculated;
  • the optimal course duration is selected.

drugs against parakeratosis in pigsThen, in the form of injections or orally, the piglets are given drugs such as lincomycin, cephalosporin and penicillin. In addition, microbes are fought locally. Remove fatty film from the skin surface with a soap solution.

During the treatment period, the piglets must make up for the loss of fluid. This is especially true of sucking individuals. Electrolytes are used as an auxiliary.

The need for prevention

vaccinationIn order to avoid panic and a desperate question – the piglet is covered with red spots, what is it, preventive measures are often taken. To begin with, they think over a balanced nutrition system for the whole livestock.dietbacon ration

The diet usually includes a sufficient amount of:

  • zinc;
  • calcium;
  • vitamin A.

Some people prefer to add zinc sulfate to the feed at 120 mg / kg mash. Other farmers inject a 2.5% solution of zinc sulfate as a preventive measure. In this case, up to 5 mg of the drug is administered per 1 kg of animal weight..

pig feedHowever, before embarking on such drastic measures, take into account the specifics of the area. They take samples of soil, water and products, send them for analysis. Having learned the percentage of the mineral content in the surrounding environment, determine the dosage for the herd.

Scientific research shows that the daily zinc requirement for each age group is significantly different:

  • piglets – 50-300 mcg;
  • pigs – 400-500 mcg;
  • sows – 150-500 mcg.

healthy livestockYet, despite all the precautions, many understand how many-sided Staphylococcus aureus is. In nature, there are from 30 to 50 strains of this dangerous bacterium. In addition, the pathogen constantly mutates and new, more resistant varieties are born. For this reason, animals are examined regularly to detect parakeratosis in pigs at an early stage. At the same time, the farm is trying to pay special attention to the sanitary and hygienic conditions of the herd.

How to treat parakeratosis in pigs – video

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