Bortevoy beekeeping is an interesting and profitable activity
The craft of beekeeping was familiar to our ancestors even before the XII century. Then honey was mined, one might say, in a barbaric way. The trees were burned, destroying bee colonies, thereby making it easier for themselves to work on extracting precious prey. Sometimes they simply took away all the honey reserves, dooming the swarm of bees to inevitable death in the cold season. Today, onboard beekeeping is an exclusive craft, possessing which a person does not harm either insects or nature. We will talk about him further..
What is onboard beekeeping
This is a special type of beekeeping, where wild bees are honey bees. For many centuries, people have taken sweet delicacies from the hollows of trees. It was there that the dwellings of bee colonies were located, where they created honeycombs and developed a useful product that has a unique taste. Families settle in natural as well as in artificially created hollows. Fortunately, man has learned to make such dwellings for bees. He hollowed them out at a height of 4-15 meters in thick tree trunks without harming their growth. The beekeeper-beekeeper climbed upward with the help of special devices.
At the end of the 18th century, bees were domesticated, apiaries appeared, and there was a decline in beekeeping. The areas planted with forest were massively vacated for agricultural land, the natural habitat of bees was destroyed. Today people living near the forest are engaged in beekeeping. As a rule, they are descendants of former beekeepers whose knowledge has been passed down from generation to generation. Bortevaya trees remained in the Burzyansky Nature Reserve, as well as in small quantities in Ukraine and Poland.
In Bashkiria, this craft has survived due to the following factors:
- an abundance of lime and maple forests;
- many sources of honey collection;
- respect of the local population for traditions.
The work of a bee keeper is considered difficult, because the bees require constant supervision and systematic care. Today, a subspecies of the dark forest honey bee is known, which is adapted to the conditions of onboard beekeeping..
Local populations of the Bashkir bee and Burzyan bee bee tolerate long, cold winters well, have good immunity and are less sick. Scientists consider them a real miracle of nature, they are listed in the Red Book and research is still ongoing with the aim of preserving these bees for the future..
What is boring
This is a hollow log that is prefabricated and hung from a tree. The deck can not only be tied to the trunk, but also installed on stands. In this case, we are talking about log-board beekeeping. Particular attention is paid to the choice of material. Trees such as oak, linden, ash are preferred. If the board is made of rotten wood, the bees fly away.
Bashkirs made boards in pines or oaks, such devices were inherited and could last up to 150 years.
The board is made of a log, its height is at least one meter, and its diameter is about 60-90 cm. The bee dwelling consists of several tiers. Tier height – 30 cm. You can choose a three- or five-tiered deck. If five tiers are made, then only three are used, and two are needed to prevent swarming, since bees begin to multiply intensively in a small space. If three compartments are used: bees live in the upper one, honeycombs are arranged on the average, and the lower one is used for waste. A hole is left on the side of the log for pumping out honey. A properly made board can last up to 10 years..
What a beginner beekeeper needs to know
Before tackling this interesting craft, you should know:
- How to choose the right place for installing the sideboard? It is installed in a wooded area where melliferous plants grow: cranberry, linden, blueberry, lingonberry, heather.
- How to properly use the honey pumping tool, face and body protection equipment. You also need to be able to climb to a height using ropes, using a safety cable, a belt for fastening.
- Features of the behavior of bees and how to care for them. In winter, for example, the boards are insulated and some honey is left for wintering. Sometimes bees are moved to hives..
The beekeeper-beekeeper must have special comfortable shoes for climbing trees.
Advantages and disadvantages
The advantages of onboard beekeeping include:
- Large capacity. Three times as many bees are placed in the board than in a regular hive. It can hold up to 20,000 honey plants.
- Good performance. With good flowering of melliferous plants from one side, you can get up to 50 kg of honey.
- Good health of the bees. Wild bees have better immunity, they grow healthier and larger.
- Saving time. Bortevo beekeeping is less time consuming than conventional apiculture.
If there are some disadvantages:
- If the bees do not like the material, they will refuse to move into the bee..
- When collecting honey, when the comb breaks out, insects can be harmed.
- Lack of control over families.
- The craft requires skill and good knowledge.
How to make a board
To do this, perform the following steps:
- Pick up a tree. It should be high and level. Cut a log at a height of 5-7 meters.
- The middle is removed with an ax and a chainsaw. Leave a wall thickness of at least 6 cm.
- The bee deck must be dry, so leave it to dry completely, sometimes you need to wait two whole years.
- Dolzheya – a groove that is cut along the trunk. It has a length of about one meter and a width of 10-15 cm. Cover it with a lid: it is nailed or maple blades, and the holes are coated with clay. The drawing of the board will help you understand all the nuances.
- Having stepped back 30 cm from the top, a window with a diameter of 6 cm is cut out to inspect the board and collect honey.
- 2 holes are made for the entry and exit of bees. They are called entrances.
- The bottom of the box is installed with a slope towards the bottom for the convenience of spring cleaning from debris and dead bees.
- Strengthen the tiers and install crosses: the more there are, the better the honeycomb holds.
- Make multiple vents.
- Bees are sensitive to unpleasant odors, so be sure to clean up all the trash. To lure the bees, rub the sides of the board with fragrant grass: mint or lemon balm.
- The lids are nailed down from above and below. At the bottom, boards are nailed, and at the top – roofing material or a sheet of metal to protect against precipitation. If the caps fit well, nails can be omitted..
- For thermal insulation, the log is covered with a linden or birch broom, if necessary, coniferous branches are added, which protect from mice.
Having made a board for the bees with their own hands, they organize the artificial settlement of honey plants in the dwelling. At this time, you cannot approach the board closer than 10-15 meters or disturb the swarm in any way. To protect against wild animals, a log is tied to the deck, which will prevent forest dwellers from climbing a tree.
If the dwelling is inhabited not by bees, but by hornets, the opening is reduced to 8 mm.
The value of flight honey
Wild honey differs in appearance and properties from honey obtained from an apiary. It has a dark brown color and a somewhat tart taste. It is thick, viscous, opaque, has a linden scent. Beehives are located mainly in ecologically clean areas, so its benefits for the body are obvious..
The honey from the bead trees contains more minerals and vitamins than the product obtained from the apiaries..
It is known for its antiseptic, anti-inflammatory properties, has a positive effect on the human body:
- strengthens the immune system;
- helps to treat flu, sore throat, pneumonia, destroys pathogens;
- helps with cardiovascular diseases, in particular with coronary heart disease;
- aids in digestion.
To preserve all the useful components, honey should be stored in dishes made from natural materials: cedar barrels, clay pots. Bortevoy honey is a storehouse of useful substances and a product that undoubtedly deserves the attention of beekeepers and lovers of aromatic nectar.!