The best beef breeds of cows: top 10 with a description
When choosing cattle, it is important to decide on a specific variety. Meat breeds of cows have their own distinctive features, strengths and weaknesses. Let’s learn about their main characteristics and content rules. Below are the 10 best breeds recommended for purchase and breeding in subsidiary farms.
Qian and Angus meat breeds of cows
Breeders from all over the world are attracted by the Qian breed of cows. Animals are characterized by unpretentiousness to feed and high rates of beef growth. The main disadvantage is an aggressive and violent character. The breed is overly active and gives low milk production.
Qian cattle are the national pride of Italy.
This is one of the popular marbled cow breeds. Beef has a uniform body fat. It is quickly saturated with useful components..
Angus cattle were bred by the Scots in the 19th century. Cows feel great on the territory of Russia.
- black or red color;
- barely noticeable neck;
- lack of horns.
The lethal output reaches 60%. Angus meat belongs to marble. There are also good indicators of milk yield. A cow gives about 3000 kg of milk per year..
It is impossible not to mention the beef breed of cows called Kazakh white-headed. Animals are famous for increased fleshiness, strong muscles, endurance, good adaptation. Over 50 years after hatching, the number of livestock has exceeded 1.5 million heads.
- indiscriminate diet;
- strong immunity;
- fast weight gain;
- high taste of beef.
The reason for the increased fat content of meat lies in the weak muscularity of the body. Cows become more aggressive after lambing.
Scientists who selected the Kazakh white-headed breed received the State Prize of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
White Aquitaine and Dutch beef cows
The record holder for meat productivity is the white Aquitanian breed of cows. It was taken out in 1962. Thanks to competent crossing, the animals gained accelerated weight gain, good muscularity and a calm temperament. They are resistant to heat, cold and dampness. The main difference is white color
Up to 75% of low-fat meat is obtained from cows. The breed does not differ in high milk production. Despite strong immunity, cattle are vaccinated against infectious diseases.
The Dutch breed of cows can boast of good meat qualities. Average yield is about 60% beef.
The advantages of the variety include:
- the readiness of heifers for mating after 14-16 months;
- decent milk quality;
- adaptability to harsh climatic conditions.
Demanding beef breed of cows to the quality of feed and living conditions. Livestock is susceptible to tuberculosis, leukemia. Farmers must pay sufficient attention to disease prevention.
The characteristic features of the Belgian blue breed are a regular set of muscle mass, an unusual body structure. Heavy cattle have light coat, strong limbs, fleshy thighs.
The meat yield from the carcass is 80%. Valuable beef is very soft and juicy. It is recommended for people who monitor their weight..
Positive qualities of the breed:
- fast development;
- It does not require special care;
- friendly character;
- delicious milk.
Often animals have swelling of the limbs due to weight. Possible complications in heifers during childbirth.
In Europe, the Belgian blue cow brings clear commercial benefits to producers. It’s hard to find a breed in Russia.
Auliekol and Hereford breeds of beef cows
Large weight, early maturity, high meat productivity and endurance are the main advantages of the Auliekol breed. Animals quickly adapt to the climate, easily tolerate temperature extremes. They are appreciated for their strong immunity, good feed conversion, unpretentiousness.
It won’t be easy to acquire a calf. One of the largest breeds of cows has a big drawback – a small breeding stock.
At the end of the 18th century, the Hereford breed was bred in England. It is notable for its prominent dewlap, barrel-shaped body, powerful short legs, white head and horns..
The animals are bred to produce marbled beef. The meat has excellent taste and is used for preparing restaurant dishes.
Herefords adapt well to external conditions and endure travel courageously. Livestock shows high fertility and resistance to various diseases. Periodically, individuals show a hereditary dwarf gene.
If you plan to breed meat breeds of cows in industrial conditions, you will not be limited to one external examination. It is important to know about the pedigree characteristics of individuals.
The cattle breed originated in Scotland. Today, young animals are kept to obtain high-quality marbled beef. The meat has uniform layers of fat and is particularly soft.
It is difficult to obtain the highest quality marbled beef unless the calves are neutered.
The pluses of the Aberdeen Angus breed include:
- early maturity;
- economic benefit;
- frost resistance.
Animals are created for permanent pasture keeping. Spending a lot of time on free grazing, they wean themselves from the owner and often show aggression towards him.
The breed was bred in France. It was brought to Russia in the middle of the 19th century. Often, Limousine cows are crossed with dairy cattle. Animals are distinguished by well-developed muscles, light horns, and a wide rump. The color is usually red, brownish, golden red.
The breed attracts beef producers with its unpretentiousness to feed, acceptable life expectancy, decent milk and meat productivity. Beef with pronounced marbling turns out to be very tender.
Marbled beef differs from the usual appearance, relatively low calorie content, juiciness.
How to choose beef breeds of cows
There are a number of requirements regarding the performance indicators of beef breeds.:
- good growth rate of calves for a long time;
- high reproductive qualities of queens;
- worthy milkiness;
- climate resistance.
The appearance of beef cows must meet general standards:
- short muscular neck;
- wide back without irregularities;
- round chest;
- short pairs of legs;
- elongated body;
- developed withers.
In beef cows, the body is shaped like a rectangle, in dairy cows – a triangle.
Choosing a beef cow, you need to evaluate other parameters.:
- Age. Old specimens are not commercially viable.
- Health status. The animal must be vigorous. Firm gait, shiny coat, clean eyes without inflammation, udder without hardening are encouraged.
- Calving number. The peak of productivity falls on 2-5 calving. Maximum number – 18.
- Profitability. You need to know how much% is the weight of the meat in relation to the weight of the carcass.
Veterinary and sanitary, technological and breeding factors play an important role..