Agrotechnics for growing leucanthemum (nivyanik) from seeds
The humble garden chamomile is far from the first place in the list of crops used to form flower beds. However, the simple cultivation of leucanthemum (nivyanik) from seeds allows you to give the summer cottage a unique look. Initially, the plant was found only in its natural environment, decorating meadows, spacious fields, rocky cliffs. But over time, breeders noticed him. They bred a number of cultivated varieties that have taken their rightful place in the landscape design of the summer cottage. Let’s look at the flower from the side. We will figure out how to grow leucanthemum from seeds and when to plant it in a flower bed.
The refined beauty of a humble flower
Botanists call the plant leucanthemum or leucanthemum. Among the people, he was given a name – garden chamomile. She belongs to the “Astrovye” family. There is a one- or long-term growing method.
In the underground part there is a dense reddish rhizome. It holds the flower securely on the ground. From the side, the plant looks like a compact herbal shrub. Therefore, the question arises, how many stems the cornflower has and how they look. Interestingly, an adult culture is capable of growing up to 120 cm in height. And the central place in it is a dense, erect shoot.
Depending on the variety, its surface is covered with villi, which are:
Sometimes short lateral branches extend from it. At the base of the stem, there is a root rosette consisting of leaf plates. They grow on short (rarely long) petioles. They have an oblong or oval shape with a narrowed base. The edges of the plates are crenate or serrated. In some varieties, they are lobed. Sessile leaves of a similar configuration are located on the middle part of the stem. The plant is crowned with smaller plates of linear-oblong shape, sometimes with solid edges..
The daisy (leucanthemum) shown in the photo clearly shows large inflorescences with a diameter of about 12 cm. They are presented in the form of heterogamous baskets of a single character, which are located on erect long legs. The edges of the inflorescences are decorated with reed and pistillate buds. In the center are tubular flowers. They appear at the end of June.
For the winter, the aboveground part of the culture dies off. The root collar, rhizome, seeds and autumn shoots in the form of a root rosette survive the cold.
Habitat and species of leucanthemum
In its natural environment, leucanthemum is found in Europe, Siberia, Central Asia, the Caucasus and the Far East. It grows unhindered on forest edges and meadows. Flowers adorn country roads, abandoned wastelands. Often, the place where the daisy grows determines its fate. If he “settled” in the garden, then it is considered a weed. Therefore, the flowers are regularly weeded out. Cultivated varieties are used to decorate the country landscape. Let’s get acquainted with the most popular varieties.
The homeland of the variety is Spain and Portugal. The flower grows up to 25 cm. Erect, slightly inclined, branching stems are covered with sessile foliage, painted in a light green color. During flowering, the herb bush is decorated with bright baskets with a diameter of 30 mm. Tubular yellow flowers are collected in a compact disk, around which short reed buds grow.
Swamp chrysanthemum bloom begins in mid-summer and continues until the first frost.
The variety is often called rock chamomile, since in nature it grows in such places. His homeland is the Japanese islands of Hokkaido, Honshu and the Russian Kuriles. The perennial grows up to about 20 cm.Each season, it is decorated with large single inflorescences in the form of yellow-white baskets.
Nivyanik the greatest
Perennial originates from the Iberian Peninsula. Its main feature is its numerous branching shoots. Their height reaches 100 cm.The plant is decorated with large inflorescences with a diameter of about 12 cm.They come in a simple and double configuration.
Popular varieties of the largest daisy, which are used to improve summer cottages:
- Shasta Daisy;
- Snow Lady;
- Little Princesses.
Some of them outwardly resemble chrysanthemums, since the terry basket is filled with several lush rows of white reed buds. Tubular flowers, which are located in the center of the basket, are painted in the same color.
The variety blooms in mid-summer..
It is this species that is considered the most popular among summer residents. The height of the plant reaches 90 cm, and the diameter of the inflorescences is about 7 cm.
On the basis of meadow chamomile, breeders have developed beautiful varieties:
- Maxima Koenig;
- May Queen;
- Crazy Daisy.
Each hybrid culture is attractive in its own way. The majestic height of the stems, large baskets of inflorescences, as well as the rich color of the leaf plates. Interestingly, the cultivar meadow chamomile has been cultivated since the 15th century AD..
Secrets of growing leucanthemum (nivyanik) from seeds
Most gardeners try to create a flower bed that blooms as early as possible. Therefore, they sow flowers in February to get juicy and strong seedlings. The preparation of the process begins in the fall..
Land from the garden is taken into suitable containers. If, for some reason, this could not be done, the substrate is bought in specialized stores. Immediately before sowing, the soil and containers are thoroughly disinfected with a solution of potassium permanganate.
The process of growing a leucanthemum (leucanthemum) from seeds includes a number of simple steps:
- drainage from fine gravel is placed on the bottom of the tanks;
- fill in the soil mixture, not reaching the edges of about 20 mm;
- carefully level the surface;
- make grooves about 10 mm deep;
- carefully lay out the seeds;
- cover with a thin layer of soil.
At the end of the work, the crops are moistened with a sprayer. Then the containers are taken to a room where the temperature is maintained at about + 22 ° C. When green sprouts appear, the containers are moved to a cooler place (+ 18 ° C). After a month, the seedlings are fed with a mullein diluted in water.
The fertilizer concentration should be low enough so as not to damage the young shoots..
The dive of the saplings is carried out when it is 1.5 months old. For business use volumetric disposable cups. First, they are filled with a soil mixture of the same composition with the addition of a small amount of humus. Then the seedlings in containers are abundantly moistened and carefully transferred to new containers. 15 days before planting, the flowers are hardened. They are taken out into the fresh air for 15 minutes at first, increasing the time daily. Thanks to this, the culture will quickly take root in the new conditions. Next, consider how to plant leucanthemum directly on a flower bed.
First of all, the site is thoroughly plowed and the soil surface is leveled. Holes are made at a distance of 20 cm from each other. The bottom is covered with mineral fertilizer and humus. In the center of the hole, seedlings are placed along with an earthen clod. The resulting voids are filled with soil mixture, compacted and watered abundantly. When the topsoil is dry, the bed is covered with mulch..
To stimulate the growth of the culture, saltpeter is added to the mulch at the rate of 20 g of the substance per 1 bucket of sawdust.
Sowing the daisy in open ground
If the plant is sown directly to the garden bed, then in the first season a rhizome and a leaf rosette will form. Flowering will come only next year.
The sowing process is carried out in early spring or before winter.:
- First of all, carefully choose the site. It should be sufficiently lit and with fertile soil..
- Then it is carefully loosened, leveled and grooves are made 20 mm deep at a distance of about 20 cm.
- Sow seeds and close up carefully.
- The topsoil is abundantly moistened with a spray bottle.
- The next day, the flower bed is covered with a layer of peat.
- When the seedlings germinate and get stronger, they are carefully thinned out. Leave the most beautiful-looking specimens.
If flowers are sown before winter, the first shoots will appear in spring..
As you can see, the cultivation of leucanthemum (nivyanik) from seeds consists of simple procedures. First, a suitable variety is selected. Then the culture is sown in containers for seedlings or directly on the flower bed. Each option has its own nuances, which are important to adhere to. Compliance with the rules will help grow a modest, but truly beautiful garden chamomile in a summer cottage.