How sunflower cake is used in the household
Sunflower cake must be included in the diet of farm animals. This product has a high energy value, since it contains up to 30-43% of crude protein, as well as about 15% of natural fats. As a result, the animal will feel full several times faster, which is quite beneficial for many farmers..
To achieve the best result, you need to know what sunflower cake is, its dosage, as well as recipes for preparing nutritious feed with it. Understanding all this will help the breeder to choose a really high-quality product. In addition, he will be able to rationally use the feed additive in his farm..
Sunflower cake: a close acquaintance with a unique additive
Makukha (common name) is obtained in the process of processing sunflower seeds. Under the press, oil is obtained from them, and the remaining squeezing is used as feed. Therefore, the quality of sunflower cake depends on 2 factors: the type of culture and the technology of its processing.
An excellent quality product will have a brown tint. In addition, a slight smell of sunflower oil should emanate from it..
Such features of the macuha indicate that it contains a sufficient amount of:
- polyunsaturated fatty acids;
- mineral elements – iron, zinc, calcium and phosphorus;
- vitamins E, A and B.
This feed is very nutritious as it has a low oxidation state. It also contains up to 5-18% fiber and more than 6% fatty acids. All of these components have a positive effect on the development and growth of young animals..
Along with this, sunflower cake contributes to:
- hanging immunity of livestock;
- excellent work of the reproductive organs of mammals;
- egg production of poultry;
- rapid growth of muscle mass;
- improving metabolic processes in animals.
How to replace sunflower meal in compound feed? As an alternative, farmers often use waste obtained from the processing of rapeseed, cotton, camelina and winter rape..
However, the additive cannot be used arbitrarily. It is necessary to adhere to the exact recipe for the preparation of feed. Overdose adversely affects the health of livestock. It is worth remembering that animal meat or other product obtained from it will eventually have an unpleasant smell or taste. Therefore, you need to adhere to the recommendations for the preparation of compound feed..
Livestock diet: dosage of sunflower cake application
The characteristics of the organism of each animal imply different technologies for their cultivation. Nevertheless, sunflower cake is a mandatory ingredient in all compound feeds. At the same time, many are interested in whether it is possible to either give the cake to pigs and other animals.
The whole secret is in the dosage for each of them:
- Turkeys. For fattening, up to 15% of the additive is added, the young need only 5-7% per day.
- Pigs, piglets. Daily growing individuals are allowed up to 300 g, and pregnant / suckling females – up to 600 g. Males are given up to 1 kg of supplements per day..
- Sheeps. For the full development of the animal and the rapid growth of wool, they are given up to 10% additives..
- Geese. The daily allowance for young geese is 17%.
- Laying ducks. The daily diet includes up to 8%. The growing offspring need about 3-7%.
- Cows, calves. The cake for the cow is used in a ratio of 1: 4 of the total amount of feed. Dairy cattle should be fed up to 4 kg daily.
- Rabbits. Between the ages of 30 and 160 days, their daily allowance is 13%.
- Goats. Lactating females are supposed to supplement 300-500 g, and growing up – 200-300 g.
- Chickens and chickens. Is it possible to give cake to chickens? Experts advise to moderately introduce the cake into the diet of birds. For adults, the dosage is 20%, and for young animals – 15%.
- Horses. Working stallions are given up to 2-3 kg of this supplement every day..
Due to its properties and structure, the cake is very quickly absorbed by the animal’s body. It is also successfully used as bait for fish. Getting into the water, the cake pieces become soaked, crumble along the river and emit a pleasant aroma. This attracts fish to the source of the tasty treat..
Diy compound feed recipes
Of course, most farmers buy ready-made feed for their livestock. However, knowing the proportions of preparation of such complementary foods, you can significantly improve the growth of livestock..
Here are some recipes for such “dishes” (all data are given in percentages):
- For calves. Barley will need 24, bran – 21, sunflower cake – 20, wheat – 13, peas – 10.
- For adult rabbits. Grass flour needs 30, oatmeal – 29, barley – 15, cake – 13, wheat bran – 11. Also add salt and chalk, 0.5% of each component.
- For fattening piglets. Wheat is added up to 41, barley – 30, cake – 10, bran with oats – 7, peas – 6.
- For chickens, broilers. Barley is taken 35, wheat – 30, peas – 10, bran – 9, cake and fodder yeast 5 each. In addition, chalk and sulfur up to 2.2 (each ingredient), fishmeal – 3.5 and Premix.
- For laying hens. Wheat will need 44, barley – 30, cake – 15 and oatmeal – 6.
It is possible to replace the main components in compound feed only with equivalent crops. They are mainly divided into 3 groups: cereals, legumes and oilseeds..
In addition, some farmers successfully use a different recipe for fattening pigs (weighing 45-75 kg). Thanks to this diet, the average daily weight gain will be more than 700 g..
To do this, they mix (%):
- barley and corn (1: 1) – 73.5;
- wheat bran – 74;
- cake – 2.8;
- peas in combination with grass flour – 2% each;
- meat and bone (fish) meal (1: 1) – 1.9;
- chalk – 1;
- salt – 0.5.
the best result is also added zinc sulphate and iron. For 1 ton of prepared feed, add 100 g of each ingredient. It is imperative to add 15 g of copper sulfate and manganese, as well as about 10 g of Biomycin.
Cobalt chloride is very useful for cattle in a dosage of 5 g, as well as potassium iodide – 2 g.
Secrets of storing sunflower cake
It is worth knowing that the ground additive cannot be stored for a very long time. The main reason is that this product has excellent hygroscopic properties. High humidity contributes to the rapid breakdown of fatty acid triglycerides. As a result of their decomposition, glycerin is released, as well as other ether compounds. Under the influence of spores of the mycelium, as well as bacteria, the macuha becomes unusable and gives off an unpleasant odor.
In this regard, it is necessary to adhere to the basic rules for storing sunflower cake at home:
- Avoid direct sunlight on the feed.
- Adhere to moisture standards. The maximum rate is 12%. If the room is very damp, the product may rot or acquire a bitter taste..
- Place bags of sunflower meal away from heat sources.
- Equip the room with ventilation / exhaust systems or regularly ventilate.
- Stir the mounds of the additive periodically to prevent condensation.
For storage of sunflower cake, ordinary bags are used, which are stacked. In some cases, the makuha is placed in a dry, warm room in the form of a mound..
Before packaging the cake, experts advise to heat the feed. If this is done in winter, then the product is heated to 35 ° C. In summer, the air temperature outside is taken into account and 5˚С is added to this indicator. Considering the above recommendations for the use and storage of sunflower meal, you can achieve excellent results in keeping livestock..