Korean fir (80 photos): types and care
Korean fir can rightfully be called a beauty with amazing decorative data. From the name of the plant, it becomes clear that Korea is its homeland, namely, its southern highlands. This is an evergreen tree with a dense luxurious crown. Cones have a rather original appearance, significantly different from spruce in their cylindrical shape and violet-purple palette. The undeniable advantages include a persistent tart aroma that has healing properties – this is a real storehouse of substances that kill pathogenic microbes.
The main types of Korean fir
To date, about 50 varieties of Korean fir are known, which are represented as dwarf decorative varieties, the height of which does not exceed half a meter, and high. They are united by pyramidal crown shapes, spreading branches with oval cones. The following varieties stand out from the most cultivated:
Aurea – a small tree with a canonical crown. Young shoots are golden, and adult needles have a rich green color. A medium-sized fir reaches a height of one and a half meters by the age of ten;
Piccolo – an even smaller variety, the height of the trunk of which does not exceed 35 cm at mature age, but the crown grows up to 1.5 m. The plant is an excellent option for the landscape of alpine hills;
Brevifolia – a slow-growing genus, which at the age of ten reaches a mark of 1 m. Lush twigs boast shiny green needles and small purple cones;
Taiga – a miniature variety belonging to the creeping category. It is quite in demand in horticulture. The height of the tree does not exceed 1/3 m, and the crown branches out in diameter a little more than half a meter. The plant has an original bright green color with a noticeable bluish tint;
Diamond – one of the most valuable relict cultures. The plant is a small cushion-shaped tree with a mixed palette – the upper part is covered with green needles, and the lower one is silver.
In addition to the varieties considered, many other species are grown in European countries, for example, Tordis, Pancake, Blue Hit, etc., with photos of which can be found in the further photo gallery.
Proper care of Korean fir
It is not at all difficult to create favorable conditions for the plant. It is important to choose a suitable site for planting, monitor the condition of the soil, its moisture, and periodically loosen it. In order to form a beautiful correct crown in Korean fir, it is necessary to remove damaged and dried branches in time. Observance of some of the rules given below will help to avoid diseases..
Korean fir belongs to rather shade-tolerant crops, but it is still better to plant it in well-lit areas. The plant needs partial shade in the first years of life, and then it can be transplanted to open areas, without being afraid of being in direct sunlight.
Although native to the tropics, its growth high in the mountains has impacted its ability to withstand large seasonal temperature fluctuations. Most varieties of the plant are frost-resistant, can tolerate winter frosts down to -28C, and some even up to -35C. The exception is young specimens, which are sheltered for the winter for the first few years..
The plant feels more comfortable in conditions of high humidity, therefore in summer, when there is no rain for a long time, in addition to watering, it is necessary to moisten the crown at least once a week. Swampiness of the soil has a negative impact on the development of culture. To avoid this, even during planting, it is necessary to provide a high-quality drainage layer, and mulch the soil.
In the autumn and spring periods, Korean fir is watered periodically, when the topsoil begins to dry out, but in general the crop has enough rainfall. In hot summer, abundant watering of 20 liters of water per copy every week is necessary. Also, a young plant needs more frequent drinking during the first month after planting. At this time, it is watered every day..
Fertilizers and feeding
The first two years after planting, Korean fir does not need additional fertilizing – it has enough nutritious soil. In the future, every spring, it is necessary to apply mineral fertilizers in a complex composition to the soil. To speed up the growth of the plant to some extent, it is necessary to sprinkle the topsoil with mulch, a layer of about 5 cm, with the addition of peat and sawdust.
Pests and diseases
A frequent cause of Korean fir disease is sudden temperature jumps, when needles fall off, loss of decorativeness. Sometimes this even leads to irreversible consequences. The plant can comprehend different types of rot arising from improper living conditions.
Pests, for example, aphids and their larvae, feeding on coniferous sap, cause much greater damage to the plant. Hermes disease is manifested by a white bloom on the needles. Also, moths and silkworms pose a danger, in the destruction of which the treatment of the plant with insecticides helps..
How to transplant Korean fir
The change of the place of residence of the plant is carried out in the spring, when the buds have not yet blossomed. To do this, it is necessary to prepare a planting pit in advance, no deeper than 80 cm. A couple of buckets of water are poured into it and a drainage layer of crushed stone or crushed brick is poured. Separately, you need to prepare the soil by mixing clay, peat, sandy and humus masses, sawdust and soluble mineral fertilizers are also added here.
With this soil, the planting pit is filled half the depth, a low mound is formed on which the tree is installed. The roots should be carefully spread around the mound and covered with earth. In this case, the root collar must remain visible above the ground. The planting site is thoroughly watered and mulched.
Korean fir reproduces safely at home. To do this, use one of several methods..
Korean fir propagation by seeds
Growing fir seedlings from seeds is one of the most difficult ways. First of all, planting material must be obtained, and often the seeds simply fly out of ripe cones. It is necessary to take the still unopened cone, dry it, extract the seeds and send them for stratification in a cold place. The material is sown in the first decade of April and the bed is covered with foil, creating a greenhouse. When the first shoots appear, the protection must be removed. The garden is regularly watered, weeded and loosened. Transplantation to a permanent place is carried out in a year.
Reproduction of Korean fir cuttings
Cutting Korean fir is a fairly popular method among gardeners, although it has a long duration of root formation. Annual shoots no longer than 8 cm are chosen as the material.They must be torn off so that a fragment of the mother wood remains (heel).
Before planting, the cuttings are treated with a foundation to exclude possible infections. It is also advisable to sterilize the soil mixture for half an hour in the oven. Cuttings planted in a container are covered with foil or glass. For the wintering period, the bed is moved to a basement with a low temperature, and in the spring it is left in the fresh air. Rooting will occur no earlier than in the second year.
Reproduction of Korean fir by layering
This method is considered one of the simplest. The bottom line is that you need to slightly dig in one of the lower branches of the tree and fix it in a prepared trench. Rooting will take place within two years. An interesting fact is that in this way the fir can reproduce without human intervention – it is enough for the twig to come into contact with the ground. The disadvantage of this method is the risk of loss of a cone-shaped crown by the newly-made culture..
Korean fir – photo
Korean fir has a special place in landscape design. Its characteristics such as slow growth (about 5 cm per year) and decorativeness at any time of the year make it possible to preserve the desired landscape compositions for a long time. Its various varieties are perfect for landscaping suburban adjoining territories, they are successfully combined with both coniferous and deciduous trees and shrubs. The photo gallery will tell you more about the fir. Happy viewing!