Early potato varieties – general information
More than 260 varieties of potatoes are grown in Russia. They differ among themselves in the group of ripeness, yield and disease resistance. Early varieties of potatoes are especially popular among Russian gardeners, due to their short ripening times..
These varieties begin to actively grow and develop as soon as the ground warms up to +10 ° C. The first harvest can be started after flowering. During this period, tubers with a very thin skin ripen. The fruit quickly loses moisture, so it cannot be stored for a long time. These potatoes are eaten or marketed during the summer. When the peel gets stronger (usually August – September), you can harvest the main crop for long-term storage in winter..
The ripening period of a variety most often depends on the quality of the seed material, the timing of planting, a sufficient amount of moisture and useful elements in the soil, the degree of protection of plants from parasites and diseases, as well as weather conditions..
The best varieties of early potatoes that are cultivated in Russia are:
- Zhukovsky early.
Experienced gardeners use several early varieties of potatoes for planting. First, under different weather conditions, each variety behaves differently. And it is difficult to predict which one will give the best result. Secondly, for cooking, it is also advisable to use different varieties: for a salad, a hard variety is better, and for mashed potatoes, it is better to take potatoes that boil well.
See also: potato gratin in the oven recipe with a photo.
Red Scarlet variety
An early high-yielding table variety imported from Holland. The ripening period for Red Scarlet potatoes is 45–70 days. Main characteristics:
- Root crops are large, elongated-oval, weighing 85–120 g. The peel is red, the surface is smooth, with shallow eyes.
- The pulp is yellow, does not darken with mechanical damage. The color does not change after heat treatment. During the cooking process, Red Scarlet potatoes do not tend to darken and do not boil.
- Starch content – 10-15%.
- Good resistance to drought, diseases (viruses, golden potato nematode, late blight, leaf curling, potato cancer).
- Productivity – 400 kg / ha.
- Stores well in winter.
To ensure high yields of Red Scarlet potatoes, the soil should be well loosened in the area where the tubers are located for the unhindered penetration of moisture and air. This has a beneficial effect on the formation of a good root system and powerful tops..
A high-yielding early variety bred by German breeders. The ripening period from planting to harvest is 45-60 days. Key characteristics of Bellarose potatoes:
- The tubers are large, oval in shape, weighing about 200 g. The peel is pink, the surface is rough, with a few small eyes.
- The pulp is yellowish, does not darken during cooking, has a low susceptibility to mechanical damage. Bellarosa potato variety boils well, has a medium-sweet taste.
- Starch content – 15.7%.
- Very high resistance to diseases (viruses, nematodes, potato cancer, leaf rolls) and drought.
- The yield is 400 kg / ha.
- Keeping potatoes good.
In more southerly areas, 2 crops of Bellarosa potatoes can be harvested per season. To do this, after harvesting the first harvest in early July, you can replant the vacated areas. The second crop should ripen in early September.
Gala potato variety
Early ripe variety. From planting to ripening of the crop, 70–80 days pass. Gala potato description:
- Root crops of medium size, weighing 100-120 g, have a round-oval or oval shape. The peel is yellowish, the surface is smooth, with shallow eyes.
- The color of the pulp ranges from light yellow to dark yellow. Has good taste. During cooking, it does not boil over and does not darken.
- The starch content is low 11-13%, therefore it is suitable for dietary nutrition.
- One of the main characteristics of the Gala potato variety is good resistance to mechanical damage and scab..
However, plants are prone to infection by the fungus rhizoctonia, therefore, they require mandatory dressing;
- Productivity – 340-600 kg / ha;
- Keeps well in winter.
2 weeks before harvesting Gala potatoes, it is recommended to first completely remove the tops. This contributes to the long shelf life of tubers in good condition..
Medium-early high-yielding table variety brought to Russia from Germany. Ripening occurs 60–80 days after planting. The main characteristics of the Adretta potato variety:
- The tubers have an oval shape, weighing 120-140 g. The peel is yellow, with rare small eyes.
- The pulp is pale yellow, with excellent taste. It boils well when cooking.
- The starch content is average – about 16%.
- The Adretta variety has increased resistance to many diseases, pests, rot and low temperatures. However, it is susceptible to such diseases: scab, rhizoctonia, late blight and black leg.
- The yield is 450 kg / ha.
- Suitable for long-term storage.
Since the Adretta potato variety is medium early, it is advisable not to overexpose it in the soil in order to avoid rotting tubers during the period of heavy autumn rains..
An early ripe high-yielding table variety. It takes 50–70 days from planting to ripening. The main characteristics of the potato variety Karatop:
- Tubers are small, oval-round, weighing 90–100 g. The peel is yellow, the surface is smooth, with small eyes.
- The pulp is pale yellow, with good taste. Potato variety Karatop retains a relatively firm structure after boiling and a pleasant yellow color.
- Starch content 14.4%.
- High resistance to viral and other diseases (nematode, potato cancer).
- Productivity – 450 kg / ha.
- Has good keeping quality.
For good yields, it is advisable to plant the Karatop potato variety on the site where legumes and herbs used to grow, and on sandy soils – lupine.
Potato variety Zhukovsky early
An early early ripening table potato variety, bred by domestic breeders. The ripening period is 60 days. The main characteristics of Zhukovsky early potatoes:
- The tubers are large, oval, weighing 100–150 g. The surface is smooth, light pink or beige, with few pink eyes.
- The pulp is white, does not darken when cut. Early Zhukovsky potatoes do not boil over by welding and are suitable for frying.
- Starch content – 15%.
- Particularly unpretentious and resistant to most diseases (nematode, scab, rhizoctonia). High resistance to drought and low temperatures.
- The yield is 380 kg / ha.
- With moderate humidity and temperature, it can persist until mid-spring.
Early Zhukovsky potatoes can be planted in April. However, to protect against frost and to increase the temperature of the soil, it is advisable to cover the planted potatoes with agrofibre. When the threat of frost has passed and the air temperature rises, the cover is removed.
It is obvious that planting early potato varieties has a number of undeniable advantages..
- The likelihood of combining the biological properties of the variety with suitable weather conditions. Potatoes resist the damaging effects of drought in late summer.
- Young plants do not have time to be damaged by the Colorado potato beetle, and mature plants – carriers of viral diseases (aphids, cicadas).
- Few chemical treatments. As a result, the pollution of the external environment and potatoes with pesticides decreases, as well as the cost of goods.
- Limited amount of labor-intensive watering.
However, by planting only varieties of early ripening terms, you can lose without guessing with the weather. Therefore, it is recommended to allocate 50% of the site for early potatoes, and the remaining part to be planted evenly with mid-season and mid-late varieties..