Garden work on summer pruning of apple trees
Experienced gardeners pay special attention to fruit trees in all seasons. Summer pruning of apple trees is mandatory, as it gives a lot of advantages both for the tree itself and for the gardener.
The importance of summer pruning
The main purpose of pruning is to ensure late flowering for the apple tree. This prevents possible damage to the set buds from late spring frosts and fogs..
Several arguments for summer pruning:
- Removing fast-growing shoots increases the supply of essential nutrients to the growing fruit.
- It is easier to shape the crown of the tree to ensure that the fruits receive enough sunlight and make it easier for the gardener to harvest..
- Removing shoots rejuvenates the old tree and heals the young apple tree.
- Thinning provides better penetration of sunlight into the crown, which affects better ripening of apples, and prevents the formation of malignant lesions on the leaves
- Pruning an apple tree in summer has a positive effect on the appearance of new buds, stimulates their growth and inhibits the growth of shoots.
Effect of pruning on fruiting
Can apple trees be pruned in summer? It is not only possible, but also necessary! The period of tree fruiting will depend on the degree of thinning. Weak and rare pruning will speed up the appearance of the crop, strong pruning will delay the ripening of fruits for at least 1 year. Removing branches provokes strong growth of new shoots near the cut. Pruning changes the relationship between the root system and the aerial crown. The necessary substances from the root feed fewer growth points. This leads to enhanced, rapid growth of new shoots..
Some apple trees grow vigorously but do not bear fruit. Gardeners note that certain varieties have specific characteristics – a long, unproductive infant period. Apple trees that develop in favorable conditions and have sufficient mineral, mostly nitrogenous nutrients, do not form flower buds.
The deflection and fixing of branches in a horizontal, drooping position will ensure the retention of assimilates in the aerial part of the tree.
This procedure should be carried out at the end of June. About a quarter of the branches (not skeletal and semi-skeletal) are secured with twine or tape.
This manipulation weakens the branches and prompts them to form flower buds..
For the first time, pruning apple trees in the summer for beginners seems difficult and troublesome. Yes, this is so, but only at first, while manipulations are being made on the “untouched” tree. The gardener needs to monitor unnecessary fatty appendages (tops) on the tree trunk and remove them in time. It is noticed that a broken process heals much easier and faster than a cut off with a pruner or a hacksaw.
On these stumps, you can take root other varieties of apple trees or other fruit crops. If there is no need for clothespin, the damaged areas are “covered” with mastic or oil paint.
Basic rules for pruning an apple tree
Before starting work, carefully inspect the tree, only then start. Stick to the middle ground. Remove a lot of branches – there is a risk of not getting a crop, leaving a lot of unnecessary means you will not achieve the desired result.
A certain set of manipulations provides the apple tree with a finished look and a formed crown. After planting a young tree in the garden, it will have the first pruning, which determines the height of the trunk. Subsequent manipulations to cut off shoots are required to ensure the correct formation of skeletal branches and ramifications..
The duration of crown formation lasts several years. For palmette it will take 4 years, for tiered and cupped shapes it will take at least 8 years.
The yield of the tree will depend on the correctness of the work done. Experienced gardeners recommend caution and gentle processing. This will not stress the tree, and it will have time to recover before autumn..
Young apple trees that have not yet borne fruit especially need pruning. Each subsequent year, only the pruning is updated. For mature trees, this method is necessary to increase yields..
The stem is the height of the trunk from the root collar to the first skeletal branch. For an amateur garden, low-stemmed apple trees (40-60 cm) are preferable.
Pruning can give an old tree new life and make it bear fruit. The usual gentle manipulations of crown formation renew the fruit bearing, prompting the apple tree to bring a high-quality harvest. The percentage of ovaries increases several times during flowering. Rejuvenating pruning begins only after the growth and drying out of the upper part of the apple tree crown.
Ideally, “rejuvenation” is carried out 2 times a year (in summer and winter).
The result is assessed according to several criteria:
- External state of the tree.
- Apple leaf color, structure.
- The bark of the trunk is whole, dense, without cracks.
- Increasing tree ovaries.
Summer pruning is carried out according to certain rules:
- During work, competitive branches are removed, tops, thickening branches growing deep into the crown of the apple tree.
- Shoots that extend from the skeletal branch or trunk at an acute angle must be cut off.
- The rate of ripening of apples will depend on the location of the branches, so horizontal ones will give fruits earlier and in greater quantities.
Differences in pruning old and young trees
There are some nuances in pruning an apple tree in summer, the scheme will be different for trees of different age.
For the young
Trees that have not yet yielded crops should only be pruned gently, the main goal is to ensure active growth. The skeletal branches serve as the basis. According to the scheme, the processes that interfere with the life of the apple tree are removed; they must be cut off at an acute angle. They actively remove branches that interfere with the growth of the main one. Repeat the procedure after 2-3 years.
A properly formed crown will provide convenience in harvesting and its good ripening in the sun. Summer pruning is indispensable if you do not want to pick small, tasteless apples from your tree in the garden. At the same time, diseased, dry processes are cut off. If this is not done, they will take nutrients from healthy branches..
So that the apple tree does not suffer from a bountiful harvest, it is necessary to remove part of the flower ovaries..
You need to know how to properly prune an apple tree in adulthood. The main sign that a tree needs rejuvenating pruning is a decrease in shoot growth (less than 30 cm) and a poor-quality crop. Branches located at an acute angle to the trunk must be removed. Those that grow vertically cut off the growth in 2 years.
Experienced gardeners insist that an adult tree should not be allowed to grow upward. This degrades the quality of the tree and the yield. Branches that are more than 3 years old must be cut down to a height of 6 cm. When shoots appear on them, the most powerful one is chosen, which can replace the removed branch. This procedure will ensure the harvest of quality fruits on the dying tree..
Slices of wood with a diameter of more than 1 cm must be smoothed out with a knife and painted over with oil paint on drying oil. This will protect loose wood from decay..
Summer pruning will heal your apple trees and increase yields in your garden..
Summer pruning of fruit trees – video