Fruit trees and shrubs for the garden plot
By purchasing fruit trees and shrubs for a garden plot, its owner lays the foundation for truly strategic plantings. For many years to come, they determine the appearance of the territory adjacent to the house, and with proper care they become the main source of fruit crops..
What fruit and berry crops are most often of interest to gardeners? How to arrange your favorite plants on the site and find the right neighborhood for them?
Fruit trees and shrubs: photos and names of popular crops
Due to the length of the country, spread over several natural zones at once, it is almost impossible to designate a single list of trees and shrubs. And yet there are species for which gardeners are sure to try to find a suitable place. Photos and names of these fruit trees and shrubs are well known even to those who are far from gardening..
Among fruit trees, the undisputed leaders are apple trees of different varieties and ripening periods. They are followed by pears and the most common stone fruits: cherries and plums..
Fruit and berry bushes, found almost everywhere, include raspberries, various types of currants, and gooseberries. Today it is actively gaining popularity:
- healing sea buckthorn;
- felt cherry;
- early honeysuckle.
Blackberries are moving into the orchard, more and more often on the plots you can find chokeberry, irgu and other crops, which some time ago were perceived as secondary or planted only for landscaping.
The list of shrubs for the garden is much broader than the above list of trees. No wonder. An orchard exclusively from trees will give the first harvest not earlier than in 5-7 years, and the shrubs are ready to please the gardener already in the second or third year after planting.
An additional advantage of shrubs is their relatively small size and less laboriousness to care for. However, no one will be able to replace the pear with currants. Therefore, without trees, the garden will never be complete..
It is believed that in the northern regions, gardeners are limited in their choice by the harsh climate, but the further south, the more diverse the population of garden plots..
Indeed, starting from the Central black earth region, in the ranks of fruit and berry crops, it is not uncommon:
- cherry plum;
- different types of nuts;
- cherry and its hybrid with cherry.
The list of shrubs is replenished with grapes, yoshta, dogwood and perennial fruiting vines.
But if until recently the gardeners of the middle lane and more northern regions were forced to be content with a very modest list of fruit and berry crops, today things are radically changing.
Nurseries have been successfully offering fruit trees and shrubs for the Moscow region for a long time, which were previously not available in the Non-Black Earth Region. The boundaries of the distribution of southern crops have seriously shifted to the north, not only due to climatic changes, but also thanks to the directed work of breeders..
It is this bait that inexperienced gardeners fall for, who want, by all means, to get a “Garden of Eden” in a limited area. You can understand them! But it is not enough to purchase seedlings, it is important to plant and grow them correctly, taking into account all the requests of plants and features of the territory..
Rules for the placement of fruit trees and shrubs in the garden
Young saplings planted in the garden grow year after year. After a few years, when the time for fruiting comes, the crowns grow by 1.5–2 meters. And mature trees take up even more space.
It is not enough to choose the most winter-hardy, high-yielding varieties, it is necessary to accurately plan the future orchard.
It is better to do this on a piece of paper, based on measurements of the distances from the planting zone to the nearest buildings, roads, fences of neighboring properties. When planting fruit trees and shrubs in a garden plot, it is necessary to take into account not only the aesthetic preferences of the owner, but also the mandatory norms. They regulate the distance from large plants to residential and outbuildings, transport routes, communications and the boundary line passing between sections.
So, for example, from an apple tree or a pear to a residential building or garage should be at least 3.5-4 meters. This distance is explained by the safe operation of the building and the need for constant care for a large horticultural crop. For shrubs, the distance is less and is one and a half meters, which makes it possible to:
- to freely carry out maintenance of walls, windows and other structures and communications;
- do not be afraid of excessive moisture in close contact with vegetation;
- take care of fruit and berry crops, harvest, cut and replant them.
In addition to the mandatory, common sense and safety restrictions, there are other rules that should be considered when planning an orchard..
It is extremely important to adhere to the distance between seedlings in rows, as well as to take into account the deadline for growing a particular crop in one place.
Useful and harmful neighborhood of fruit trees and shrubs in the garden
Knowledge of the needs of individual plant species and their characteristics is of considerable importance for the future planting:
- Some crops prefer to grow in the sun, others easily adapt to the shade.
- For some of the fruit trees and shrubs in the garden area, an open, wind-blown place is suitable, and the other will have to find shelter.
- Plants’ demands for fertility and watering vary.
It is unlikely that in the limited area of the site it will be possible to please all the requests of green pets. In a small country garden, inevitably some shrubs end up under the crowns of growing trees. So that such a neighborhood does not affect the yield, the meta for planting shade-loving fruit trees and shrubs in the garden is determined in advance.
These crops include black currants, honeysuckle, undersized, berry bushes such as cranberries, blueberries and lingonberries. If the shady corner of the garden is well ventilated, viburnum will settle well here. Blackberries and raspberries are grown in partial shade.
Gardeners have long noticed that even in comfortable conditions, garden plants sometimes refuse to bear fruit at full strength, look depressed and grow poorly. It turns out that the reason for this behavior is the incorrectly chosen neighborhood. As in nature, in an orchard, trees, shrubs and herbaceous crops form tight communities. The above options for a successful and dangerous neighborhood of fruit trees and shrubs in the table will help create the best conditions for each species and get the most out of it.
You can arrange the plantings so that closely related plants are nearby. Such a solution will be extremely useful, for example, for cherries and petioles, many varieties of which are self-fertile, and they need a pollinator to get a harvest. A similar picture is observed when growing sea buckthorn. True, here there must be one male bush for several female plants..
In addition, for sea buckthorn, willingly propagating by root layers, blackberries and raspberries, it is better to find a place away from the rest of the garden plantings, otherwise the powerful shoots of these crops will master half of the garden in a year.