How to grow Yalta onions in the Moscow region – the main secrets of a good harvest
Yalta or Crimean onion is one of the most popular and widespread southern varieties with a delicate sweetish taste without bitterness. Traditionally, it is grown on the territory of Crimea, but knowing how to grow Yalta onions in the Moscow region, summer residents of central Russia will also be able to get a generous harvest of tasty and juicy bulbs..
Features and description of the variety
The Yalta or Crimean onion variety was bred by breeders of the Crimea, and its basis was the Portuguese type of vegetable culture, Mader flat. The breeding work resulted in a variety with excellent taste..
Yalta bulbs have a pleasant, delicate taste without pungency and bitterness. Due to the absence of a pungent onion smell, this salad variety is suitable for fresh consumption, without heat treatment.
Features of the Yalta onion:
- The bulbs are flat and rounded with a concave bottom and a fibrous root system..
- Average bulb weight – 200-220 g, some fruits can reach 280-300 g.
- Fruits are covered with dry, dense scales, which can have a purple or dark pink color and a slight red tint..
- The inner scales are thick and dense, white-pink in color, arranged in 7 layers and poorly separated from each other.
- The pulp is crispy and juicy, without pungency, bitterness and specific onion smell.
- Yalta onions are late ones – it will take 135-150 days to ripen.
Among the main advantages of the Yalta onion are high yield, good disease resistance and excellent taste of the fruit. Subject to agricultural technology, you can collect 2-3 kg of crop from 1 sq. m.
But before growing Yalta onions in the Moscow region, it is necessary to take into account its disadvantages – exactingness to the quality of the soil and a short storage period of the crop..
How to grow Yalta onions in the Moscow region
The cultivation of Yalta onions in the Moscow region requires strict adherence to all the intricacies of agricultural technology. The main difficulty lies in the fact that in the Crimea, in its natural environment, the vegetable grows on a special soil – Tauride shale. They are able throughout the day to absorb the heat of the sun, and at night “give” it to plants.
Before growing Yalta onions in the Moscow region, you need to create optimal conditions for it. In Russia, it is grown not from bulbs, but from seeds by seedlings. Due to the long ripening period, the seeds cannot be sown directly into the soil – the bulbs simply do not have time to ripen before the onset of frost.
Seed preparation and containers
You can start sowing seeds for seedlings at the end of February or in the first days of March. In this case, already at the beginning of April, the matured seedlings can be transplanted to a permanent place..
Before growing Yalta onions from seeds, they need to be properly prepared.:
- select the best seeds for sowing – large, without spots and damage;
- for disinfection, fill the seeds with a weak solution of potassium permanganate and leave for 35-45 minutes;
- rinse and soak in any growth stimulant according to its instructions;
- dry the bulbs with paper towels and let them dry completely.
For growing seedlings, you can use any containers with a depth of 10-15 cm – plastic cups, wide containers, cassettes or peat tablets. Drainage holes must be made in cups and containers..
Sowing seeds for seedlings
For seedlings of Yalta onions, you need to prepare a nutritious substrate – for this you can use sod soil and humus in equal proportions. To improve the fertility of the substrate, you can add 40-60 g of complex mineral fertilizers.
- make grooves up to 1 cm deep on the soil surface;
- leave a distance of 5-6 cm between the furrows;
- place the seeds in the grooves, leaving a gap of 4-5 cm between them;
- sprinkle with substrate and pour from a spray bottle.
To create a greenhouse effect, cover the seed container with glass or clear plastic wrap and leave in a dry, warm place. Before germination of seedlings, onions do not need an abundance of light, but after they appear, the container must be rearranged on a well-lit windowsill.
To get strong and healthy seedlings of Yalta onion, which will quickly take root in the garden, the sprouts must be carefully looked after.
Basic rules of care:
- Temperature – immediately after sowing seedlings, the temperature must be maintained from + 24 ° С to + 26 ° С, after the emergence of seedlings it should be lowered to + 15 °.
- Lighting – for active growth, Yalta onions need an abundance of sunlight. If it is not enough, you need to use phytolamps or other sources of additional lighting..
- Watering – seedlings need regular watering. Moisten it with a spray bottle so that the soil does not dry out and always remains moist, but not wet.
- Top dressing – fertilizers for seedlings are applied twice. The first feeding is carried out 13-15 days after sowing, the second – 20 days after the first fertilization.
- Thinning – if the sprouts grow very densely, they should be thinned out, leaving a distance of about 1 cm between the bulbs.
7-10 days before planting the Yalta onion on the beds, it must be prepared. To do this, boxes with seedlings must be taken out to fresh air every day, gradually increasing the hardening time..
Transplanting seedlings into open ground
After warm weather sets in, the soil warms up and the risk of recurrent frosts disappears. Yalta onion seedlings can be transplanted to a permanent place. In the suburbs, this is the beginning or middle of April.
Planting seedlings in open ground:
- Before planting onions, dig the area to a depth of at least 25-30 cm and apply fertilizer. To do this, you can use phosphorus-potassium complexes or humus with the addition of ash.
- Smooth the surface of the plot with a rake.
- Make grooves 5 cm deep, leaving a gap of 30-40 cm between them.Instead of grooves, you can prepare planting holes.
- Place seedlings in grooves or holes 10 cm apart.
- Sprinkle the onion with soil, compact slightly and pour.
After planting is completed, mulch the beds with Yalta onions with a thin layer of peat or humus and compact it a little.
Yalta onion care
Yalta onion care consists in standard agrotechnical procedures.
The plant needs to be moistened and fed, loosened the soil, protected from diseases and pests:
- For growth and good taste, Yalta onions need regular moisture. The plant is moistened as the soil dries, at least twice a week. Watering should be stopped 3 weeks before harvest.
- After each watering, the soil near the onion must be loosened. This improves the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the roots of the plant..
- It is advisable to feed Yalta onions 2 times a month, alternating organic and complex mineral fertilizers. For this, rotted manure, chicken or pigeon droppings, as well as phosphorus-potassium compounds are used..
One of the disadvantages of Yalta onions is their short shelf life. But knowing how to store Yalta onions, you can increase it to 4-5 months. It is advisable to keep the harvested crop in a cellar, basement or on a loggia at a temperature not higher than + 15 ° С.
The room should have dry air with minimal humidity – this will prevent rotting of the bulbs. To preserve the freshness of the fruit, it is best to tie them in “braids” and store them hanging.
Yalta onion is one of the best salad varieties. Bulbs with a pleasant, sweet taste without bitterness and a delicate aroma. Subject to the rules of agricultural technology, summer residents and vegetable growers of the Moscow region can grow the Crimean culture. At the same time, an excellent harvest of tasty and juicy bulbs is obtained..