The value and use of phosphorus fertilizers for horticultural, horticultural and ornamental crops
Phosphorus is one of the most important macronutrients involved in the physiological processes of plants throughout the growing season. That is why the importance and use of phosphate fertilizers play an important role in world agricultural practice. With the help of phosphorus-containing dressings, gardeners and gardeners ensure full development, high resistance to diseases and good yields of vegetable and fruit crops.
The value and application of phosphorus fertilizers for cultivated plants
The use of phosphorus fertilizers is vital for any garden, horticultural and ornamental crops. This element is part of the nucleus of a plant cell, helping to control metabolic processes in tissues and saturating them with energy. Phosphorus in mineral form takes part in carbohydrate synthesis.
What do phosphate fertilizers affect?:
- stimulate the growth of the plant root system;
- accelerate the growth of crops;
- activate germination and rooting of seeds;
- normalize metabolic processes in plant cells;
- strengthen the immune system;
- improve productivity;
- increase frost resistance.
Signs of phosphorus deficiency can be determined by slow plant growth, the formation of thin and short shoots, drying and death of the top, low frost resistance and poor fruiting..
These signs indicate that the plant needs additional phosphorus-containing fertilizers. That is why the question of the meaning and use of phosphorus fertilizers in horticulture and horticulture plays an important role..
One of the advantages of phosphate fertilizers is that they can be applied without fear of overfeeding the plant. An excess of this mineral will not harm the plant, since phosphorus is absorbed only in the amount that is necessary for full growth and fruiting..
Types of phosphorus fertilizers
In the matter of the meaning and use of phosphorus fertilizers, one must take into account their variety, which depends on the characteristics of the composition and properties..
What phosphorus fertilizers are:
- Water-soluble – dressings with a liquid consistency, which quickly dissolve and are completely absorbed by plant tissues. This group of fertilizers includes phosphorus, superphosphate and double superphosphate..
- Sparingly soluble – such fertilizers do not dissolve in water, but can dissolve in weak acidic solutions. This category of fertilizing includes defluorinated phosphate, open-hearth phosphate slag, tomoslag, precipitate.
- Insoluble – fertilizers from this category do not dissolve in water and dissolve poorly in weak acidic solutions. The only thing they can dissolve in is concentrated acids. The group of insoluble dressings includes bone and phosphate rock..
Natural phosphorus fertilizers stand out separately – these are top dressing of natural origin. These include fish and fish bone meal, sapropel, compost, vermicompost, humus and bird droppings..
Phosphoric acid as a fertilizer has its own characteristics and is used for certain crops, depending on the composition of the top dressing.
Superphosphate is one of the most popular phosphate fertilizers. It contains phosphoric acid, monopotassium phosphate, as well as sulfur and magnesium. Depending on the concentration of phosphoric acid, superphosphate can be simple (about 20%) and double (50%).
Superphosphate can be used for crops grown both outdoors and indoors. This composition is universal, it is great for any vegetable, fruit and berry and ornamental crops.
Phosphoric acid as a fertilizer is indispensable for the following crops:
- Apple tree.
Superphosphate is used in several ways. Top dressing can be applied to the holes when planting vegetables – up to 20 g in each hole. When planting fruit trees and shrubs, the dosage is increased to 45-70 g.
During the growing season, superphosphate is introduced in the form of liquid solutions. For this purpose, 100 g of fertilizer is used per bucket of warm water. Pour 500 ml of solution into each trunk circle. If double superphosphate was used, the feeding dosage is reduced to 50-60 g per bucket of water.
Ammophos is a top dressing that is obtained as a result of the processes of neutralizing phosphoric acid with ammonia. This fertilizer contains not only phosphorus, but also a high concentration of nitrogen. 50% phosphorus accounts for approximately 11-13% nitrogen.
Due to its versatility, ammophos is equally often used in autumn and spring..
It is best used for feeding cucumbers, potatoes, beets, grapes, grains and ornamental crops:
- potatoes – ammophos is introduced into 2 g planting holes;
- beets, cucumbers and other vegetables – 20-25 g of top dressing per 1 sq. m;
- grapes – 400 g of ammophos per bucket of water, the solution is used for spring top dressing of the soil.
When feeding fruit trees and shrubs with ammophos, the feeding rate increases to 25-35 g per square meter. m.
Diammofoska or ammonium hydrogen phosphate is a fertilizing widespread in horticulture and horticulture. It contains not only about 50% phosphorus, but also other useful substances – nitrogen, potassium, iron, magnesium, sulfur, zinc. The exact composition of the top dressing may vary depending on the manufacturer..
The use of diammophos helps to increase the resistance of plants to adverse weather conditions, diseases and pests. Also, this fertilizer is used to improve the taste of fruits – they become larger, juicy and sugary.
Diammophos application rate:
- potatoes – 7-8 g per 1 sq. m or a teaspoon into the landing hole;
- strawberries and strawberries – 6-7 g per m2;
- tomatoes and cucumbers – a teaspoon each when planting seedlings in a permanent place;
- indoor crops – 30-35 g per sq. m;
- fruit trees – 20 g each, diammophos is introduced into the trunk circle during digging.
Diammophos stays in the soil for a long time and is not washed out by rains. It can be combined with organic feed such as compost, manure or poultry droppings..
Phosphorite and bone meal
Phosphate flour is a mineral powdery fertilizer containing at least 25-30% phosphorus in combination with calcium. Top dressing does not dissolve in water. It is recommended to use it only on acidic soils or to combine it with rotted manure or other acidic dressings..
Most often, phosphoric flour is embedded in the ground during its digging before planting plants. Consumption rate – 170-200 g per 1 sq. m.
No less popular among gardeners and gardeners is bone meal, obtained in the process of grinding the bones of cattle. This powdery substance contains up to 40% phosphorus. Additionally, the organic fertilizer may contain iodine, iron, copper, iron and other minerals..
Phosphorus fertilization rules
To obtain the maximum effect, the introduction of phosphorus fertilizers requires adherence to a number of rules. When using such dressings, it is desirable to carry out liming at the same time. Fertilizers are best absorbed in acidic soil; in an alkaline environment, acidifying components should be used.
When using phosphorus-containing formulations, you need to remember the rule – for spring feeding, it is better to use water-soluble fertilizers, dry and granular formulations in autumn.
Basic rules for the use of phosphorus fertilizers:
- Fertilizers with phosphorus content are considered universal. They can be used for any vegetable, fruit and berry and ornamental crops.
- Granular formulations should not be poured directly onto the soil surface. They must first be diluted with water and watered or introduced into its deep layers by digging.
- Phosphorus-containing fertilizers bring the greatest effect when applied in autumn. They saturate the soil with useful substances, helping it to endure the winter and preparing it for the spring season..
- For indoor plants, fertilizing with phosphorus content can be used throughout the year, regardless of the season..
- When applied to acidic soils, liming is carried out in 3-4 weeks. For this purpose, you can use wood ash, lime or chalk. This improves the absorption of the feed..
Feeding with phosphorus fertilizers is an important part of caring for vegetables, fruits and berries and ornamental crops. They ensure rooting and active growth, increase immunity to diseases and frost resistance, improve the yield and taste of fruits..